James O. Dorsey, an unusual large scale conflict took place between the Ponca and their old enemies the Pawnee. Among the 18 killed was the famous Ponca Chief, Shu-de-ga-xe or “Smoke Maker” (the first of this name) (Report of P. Wilson to B. O’Fallon, 1824, National Archives, St. Louis Superintendency). I am the great granddaughter of Lucy and Garland Kent, Sr., daughter of Curtis and Francis Primeaux and sister of Lexia and Alec Kent. It seems that both tribes were out on their tribal buffalo hunts and the encounter was accidental. This was followed in 1826 by yet another treaty, in which the Federal Government agreed to receive the Ponca “…into their friendship and under their protection.” it should be noted, that there are no records that exist to date, showing that any member of the Ponca Tribe have ever killed white settlers or soldiers, or have ever taken up arms against the United States of America. Cession 628. The Ponca Tribe of Oklahoma is a tribal government that is comprised of 3783 members now located 5 miles south of Ponca City in the White Eagle Community. They were quartered in tipis they had brought with them, as no other provisions had been made by the government for their accommodation. In 1962, the Congress of the United States decided that the Northern Ponca Tribe should be terminated. Beginning in 1856, although the Ponca tried to hunt in the spring and the fall in the traditional way, they were frequently turned away by Teton Lakota war parties. Formal relations between the Ponca and the United States did not begin however, until 1817. Grant agreed to the move if the Ponca were willing. 12/04/2020 . By the time the Lewis and Clark expedition reached the Ponca village in September 1804, on the lower side of Ponca Creek, about two miles from the Missouri River, the Ponca had become quite familiar with Europeans. However, by the time they entered the camp, the Pawnee had fled. The southern Ponca under principal chief White Eagle settled on a 101,000-acre reservation near the confluence of the Salt Fork and Arkansas rivers in the Cherokee Outlet (present Kay and Noble counties in Oklahoma). Ponca Celebration Grand Entry 8pm Main Arena . It was in this same area that Omaha and Ponca oral history say that the Omaha, Ponca and Iowa first encountered the Marinara, who at that time occupied territory in Northeastern Nebraska. Of the 30 Ponca, only 12 returned alive. (Duncan, 1997, p. 59) the Ponca then made first contact with French traders in 1794. These guidelines were adopted by the Oklahoma … Later in 1847 the Mormons settled in the Rocky Mountains in what is now Salt Lake City, Utah. The Poncas, who were allotted in 1890, saw their land go to non-Indian settlers through a September 1893 land run, an event that its Euro-American participants and their descendants celebrated. Welcome to the sovereign and self-governing lands of The Ponca Tribe of Indians Of Oklahoma. Location - Southwest of Ponca City~~~Corner of Waverly Street and old Highway 60, go south about 3 miles on Waverly to Riverview Road. However, the government made no effort to correct this fantastic error, or to protect the Ponca as promised in the treaty of 1858. Over the next eight years, the Ponca repeatedly appealed to the U.S. Government for protection and assistance. Located on the North side of the settlement of White Eagle, Ponca Indian Reservation, Kay County, Oklahoma. White Eagle – son of Iron Whip (has hereditary leadership rites). In 1936 the Oklahoma Indian Welfare Act paved the way for the Southern Ponca in Oklahoma … By 20 October 1880, when agent A. R.  Satterwhite filed a report for the Ponca Agency in Indian Territory, the population of the Ponca in Oklahoma was now only 530 under the leadership of the following men: White EagleBlack CrowRush Into BattleThe ChiefBig BullBig SoldierChild Chief. The full-bloods formed a tipi village, while … Occasionally, small elements of the Lakota would sometimes raid the Ponca as well, taking horses or stealing corn they had grown. References to the Ponca historical records include the variations la Pong, Panka and Punka. San Francisco, CA – After suffering for years with poisoned water and serious health issues due to fracking and injection wells on and near their reservation the governing body of the Ponca Nation of Oklahoma voted to pass a statute recognizing the rights of nature on Friday, October 20, 2017. This page has been viewed 810 times (0 via redirect). Afternoon session will be at the Cultural Center at 2:00pm . Fancy Dance Casino is owned and operated by The Ponca Enterprise Gaming, LLC (PEG), a subsidiary of the Ponca Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma. Membership in the tribe requires a 1/8 minimum blood quantum, according to rules developed by the tribe. This land was part of the Indian Territory purchased from the Cherokee by the U.S. Government in the treaty of 1866. The Ponca Tribe of Oklahoma is governed by an elected business committee and tribal chairperson and vice-chairperson. The case of Standing Bear vs. Crook was brought before Judge Elmer S. Dundy in U.S. District Court on 30 April 1879, and by 12 May 1879 Judge Dundy had filed his now famous decision in favor of Chief Standing Bear holding that “an Indian is a person the same as a white man, and similarly entitled to the protection of the constitution.” Standing Bear and his followers were set free, and he then continued back to the Ponca tribal burial grounds on the Missouri bluffs where he buried his son with tribal honors. (The 14th Amendment states that no state shall deprive anyone of life, liberty or property without due process of law.) In 1876, the U.S. Government formulated a policy to consolidate as many tribes as possible in the Indian Territory of Oklahoma. Another location was found for them on the west bank of the Arkansas River, covering both sides of the Salt Fork River in North-Central Oklahoma near what is now Ponca City. Later it is believed, the Ponca returned to build a village with the Omaha and the Iowa at the mouth of the White River. The Iowa continued further south almost to the Platte River, making a village near present day Florence, Nebraska in Douglas County. (O'shea & Ludwickson, 1992, pp. 08/25/2018 . This document titled, “Constitution and Bylaws of the Ponca Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma” was registered with the U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Indian Affairs. Historic Tribes: Ponka. The Omaha Daily Herald Newspaper publicized the plight of the Ponca group, and it was carried by many other newspapers across the country. The Ponca Indian Reservation was located in Oklahoma. The Ponca Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma, also known as the Ponca Nation, is one of two federally recognized tribes of Ponca people. (1) 08/25/2018 . The Ponca, linguistically related to the Sioux, had settled in the area of northeast Nebraska and southeast South Dakota, having migrated there from the Ohio River Valley. The Northern Ponca now operates under a constitution consistent with the Indian Reorganization Act of 18 June 1934. The information furnished to Fletcher by the Office of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs showed the Wa-in-xu-de or “Gray Blanket” village was said to have a population of 377 persons, the Hu-bthon or “Fish Smell” village had 144 persons, and the “Point” village had 248 persons. 08/25/2018 . COMMENTS; ABRAHAMSON: Bertha (Littlecook) 11 … The Ponca Reservation was established by Acts of Aug. 15, 1876 (xix, 192), Mar. Despite the “protection” of a trust period… By 1906, just one year prior to Oklahoma statehood, the total Ponca population was 833, divided as 570 Southern Ponca in Oklahoma and 263 Northern Ponca in Nebraska. All Rights Reserved. During the 1830s the Ponca were generally thought to be allies with elements of the Yankton Dakota and the Teton Lakota and frequently joined with them in warfare against the Pawnee. Peter Wilson, acting on behalf of Maj. Benjamin O’Fallon, visited a group of Ponca at the mouth of the Niobrara River. Their tribal jurisdiction spans parts of Kay and Noble counties. Ponca City had a population of 25,387 at the time of the 2010 census. Because the Ponca were not to leave their reservation without permission, Standing Bear and his small group of followers were labeled as a renegade band. In 1825 another treaty with the Ponca was made, in which the Ponca acknowledged that they lived within the “territorial limits of the United States,” thereby recognizing the supremacy of the larger force of the U.S. Government. On behalf of the Ponca Business Committee and Ponca Tribe, we extend... our condolences for the loss of a well respected veteran and elder of the Ponca Tribe. It was not until after the United States military subdued the Sauk in 1834 during the Black Hawk War, that the Ponca and the Omaha gained some relief. However, they were vulnerable from attack by larger nomadic tribes as evidenced by an event that took place in 1824. A service provided by, https://www.familysearch.org/wiki/en/index.php?title=Ponca_Indian_Reservation_(Oklahoma)&oldid=2953599, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. In 2018, The Ponca Tribe of Indians Oklahoma (Southern Poncas) has 3,783 enrolled members. Meanwhile, the Ponca hunting party from the Gray Blanket village ran into the fleeing Pawnee and after an intense running fight, killed them to a man. The Ponca Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma is headquartered at White Eagle, near Ponca City, Oklahoma. The group that traveled down river earned the name u-ga-xpa or Quapaw, meaning “with the current” or “downstream.” The Quapaw continued south along the east bank of the Mississippi River into what is now Arkansas, and these descriptive names were already in place by the time Hernando de Soto met the Quapaw Tribe when he crossed the Mississippi River in 1541 (Fletcher & Laflesche, 1911, p. 36) and (Baird, 1989, p. 14). Ponca City Public Schools . Then a grand council was established to reach an agreement on the terms of the peace, and rules of war and hunting. In the early 1800s, the Ponca were still a semi-sedentary tribe living in earth lodges that the Arikara taught them and the Omaha how to construct. Soon, the Ponca learned the value of being the middlemen in trade between Europeans and those tribes along the Upper Missouri, and in 1795 they began the practice of stopping and raiding trading craft as they went up the Missouri River (Howard, 1965, p. 25). Bending to their inevitable situation, the Ponca chiefs signed a treaty with the U.S. Government on 12 March 1858 which ceded to the government all 2.3 million acres of land which the Ponca owned or claimed “except for a small portion on which to colonize or domesticate them.” In return, the Federal Government promised to “protect the tribe in the possession of the remainder of their domain as their permanent home and to secure them in their persons and property” (Royce, 1899, p. 818). [1] Current administration 377-383) (Fletcher & Laflesche, 1911, p. 54). In April 1987, Nebraska passed legislative resolution #128 giving state recognition to the Northern Ponca Tribe and its members. By 1906, just one year prior to Oklahoma statehood, the total Ponca population was 833, divided as 570 Southern Ponca in Oklahoma and 263 Northern Ponca in Nebraska. Treaties. Cemetery on left side. During this time, the Omaha and Iowa pushed further south along the Missouri River to build a village at Covington, Nebraska in present day Dakota County. The Ponca Tribe today has about 4,200 members with many still settled in Ponca City. The Teton Lakota Bands now had a perfect excuse for their continued raids on the Ponca, as the Ponca were now trespassers in their own homeland. Ponca Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma Ponca Tribe of Nebraska. LAST NAME. At the direction of Brigham Young, who stayed with the main group of Mormons in the Council Bluffs/Omaha area, this advance party traveled along the north side of the Platte River to a deserted Pawnee village on the Loup River near present day Genoa, Nebraska (Tibbitts, 2003, p. 1). I am a descendant of the Ponca Tribe and of the Wa’zha’she Clan. The chiefs were then forced to make the journey home in the middle of winter, without money, food or an interpreter. Keep the Poore family in prayer during this time. The information furnished to Fletcher by the Office of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs showed the Wa-in-xu-de or “Gray Blanket” village was said to have a population of 377 persons, the Hu-Bthon or “Fish Smell” village had 144 persons, and the “Point” village had 248 persons. Membership to the tribe requires a 1/8 minimum blood quantum. In the same report filed in 1880, it was recorded that among the Ponca in Oklahoma, 80 houses had been built. During the war of 1812, the Ponca and the Omaha allied with the United States, while the Sauk, who held territories northeast of the Omaha, allied with the British. "Oklahoma Indian Reservations," Handbook of Indians North of Mexico, by Frederick Webb Hodge, Ⓒ 2020 by Intellectual Reserve, Inc. All rights reserved. While the Mormons were there, 9 Ponca chiefs and sub-chiefs arrived on the 8th of August 1846, intending to seek peace negotiations with the Pawnee. They planted corn and other crops, hunted buffalo occasionally and traded for many of their goods. My name is Nadia Lynn Kent. The Ponca chiefs made the journey to Indian Territory in Oklahoma, visiting many different land reserves which were equally barren and unsuitable for agriculture. The long march took a heavy toll on the tribe, over half of whom were women and children. By 1865, the last treaty signed with the Ponca, ceded an additional 30,000 acres of Ponca land to the U.S. Government, reducing the Ponca Reservation near Niobrara Nebraska, in what is now Knox and Boyd counties, to a mere 96,000 acres. Buffalo Chip – a chief of the 2nd rank (after Black Warrior dies in August 1846). Gen. George Crook was then given orders by Secretary of the Interior Carl Schurz to arrest the run-a-ways and return them to Indian Territory. 211-213) and Howard (1965, p. 11), the Ponca built a fortified village by themselves by Ponca Creek near the Niobrara River when the group reached the vicinity of present day Niobrara, Nebraska, in what is now Knox County. As time progressed, the Ponca and other semi-sedentary tribes along the Upper Missouri River, such as the Omaha, Arikara, Pawnee, Mandan and Hidatsa, who were attached to their earthlodge villages and cornfields, were no match for the nomadic Dakota and Lakota, who were very mobile, well-armed and always knew the exact strength and precise location of these tribes. Dissatisfied with the reservation system established after the Civil War, reformers and politicians decided to assimilate American Indians by forcing private ownership of land. At this time they were joined by the Iowa, who belong to the Chiwere dialect of the Siouan language group, similar to the Otoe and Missouri Tribes. The name for the Ponca has been interpreted by some authorities as “that which is sacred” (Mails, 1985, p. 308), yet certain members of the Ponca Tribe believe it comes from the Ponca word pah-ca meaning “nose” or “that part of the face that goes before the rest of the body.” Other interpretations include “sacred head” and “gentle leader.”. The Ponca were very unhappy in this location and pleaded for a better location in the Indian Territory. Editor’s Note: This article is part of the multi-part series “Exiled to Indian Country” about the exile of Native Americans. Kathleen Powell born June 27, 1948 in Ponca City, Oklahoma and passed away January 8, 2021. James O. Dorsey, for many years a missionary and amateur ethnographer among the Ponca and the Omaha in the late 19th Century, states that later the neighboring Yankton Dakota Tribe made war on the Omaha, Ponca and Iowa while they camped on the Big Sioux River, which forced the group to travel west to the present day site of Lake Andes, in Choteau County, South Dakota. 253-254). To make matters worse, white settlers had been slowly filtering into Ponca Territory and squatting on valuable bottom land fields. In the spring of the following year, in 1859, the Ponca tried to make their customary tribal buffalo hunt, but encountered a combined party of Sicangu Lakota, Oglala Lakota and Cheyenne at the headwaters of the Elkhorn River. On their way south, they camped at Ft. Omaha near the city of Omaha, Nebraska and their story was made known to the citizens there. Their tribal jurisdictional area includes parts of Kay and Noble counties. Main article: Ponca Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma After the 1877 forced relocation onto the Quapaw Reservation in Indian Territory, the tribe moved west to their own lands along the Arkansas and Salt Fork Rivers. United States Department of the Interior. Smallpox and other introduced Eurasian diseases took a heavy toll of the tribe repeatedly in the 18th and 19th centuries, as they had no immunity to the new diseases. The Ponca Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma is headquartered in Ponca City, Oklahoma. Therefore, Standing Bear and sixty-six followers left the Ponca Reservation in January 1879 on foot, following a wagon containing the body of his dead son, as they headed north to the traditional Ponca burial grounds in Nebraska. When the agent returned to Nebraska, Standing Bearand other tribal members signe… Allotment in severalty robbed the Poncas and other Indians of additional land and made way for statehood. Ponca Tribe originally sought an injunction in the District Court for the Western District of Oklahoma under the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act (“IGRA”), 25 U.S.C. These figures total 769, which differs from Fletcher's statement, “the total population of the tribe at that time was 733.” Fletcher further states that “there were eight chiefs, each of whom had his band,” and she gives a breakdown of the population among each as follows: When these cited figures above are added, the total comes to 600 persons accounted for. It is also believed that it was at this time that the Arikara showed the Omaha, Ponca, Iowa group how to build an earthlodge, and in return, the Omaha gave the Marinara permission to perform certain aspects of the Hethuska Society traditions and dances (Howard, 1965, p. 14) (Duncan, 1997, p. 33). Although Standing Bear and his followers were freed in the spring of 1879, they had no home to return to in Nebraska. The other is the Ponca Tribe of Nebraska. United States Department of Commerce, Frederick B. Dent, Secretary. The Ponca were suffering from malaria in this new country and many died from it. According to Alice Fletcher in The Omaha Tribe (Fletcher & Laflesche, 1911, p. 51) by November 1874, the total population of the Ponca was counted as 733 persons, divided into three villages along the Niobrara River. This policy effected some 109 tribes and bands including 13,263 Indian people and 1,365,801 acres of trust land. FIRST MI. Also, 350 acres had been planted with corn and other vegetables (Foreman, 1946, pp. Unfortunately, this association with Europeans had caused a smallpox epidemic among the Ponca in 1800 prior to Lewis and Clark’s arrival, which significantly reduced their number (James, 1823, p. 225). Country and many died from it into present day tribes: Ponca Tribe of Indians of.. Tribes: Ponca Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma the next eight years however... 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