If you have a root word and want to alter it according to the context it will be used in, you must choose a suitable prefix. -> equivalent to english infinitive “to” or gerund “ing”, isiXhosa specifically has 15 noun classes while other SA indigenous languages have more, i think, the class numbers are usually listed as singular, plural, singular, plural.. etc, In each class, there is sometimes more than one prefix option, (depends on vowels and consonants, word must be grammatically correct). The verb root occupies the 0 position. 4. This website also provides you English Grammar, TOEFL and most common words. Most syllables end in a vowel, and there are no consonant clusters. Outside: ngaphandle. Nouns are put into noun classes (categories) based on their prefixes. I will now be listing the different noun classes and their respective prefixes: Lets take the root “-qhekeza” (a verb) which means (break in/off) and place it into different classes to show how meaning changes, class 1:  umqhekezi – burglar/person who breaks in, class 3:  umqhekezo – event of breaking off, class 7: isiqhekezi – expert person on breaking off, class 11: uqhekezo – state of breaking off, Another example: “-phula” (a verb) which means break/something brittle or in pieces, class 1:  umphuli – person who breaks things, class 3:  umphulo – event/manner of breaking, class 7:  isiphuli – expert person who breaks things, http://facweb.furman.edu/~perrytravis/courses/bio39/Academics/Isixhosa/nounclasses.html. Xhosa Quiz. Nouns in isiXhosa are placed into different noun classes according to prefix. Change ), -Vocab 2 – ukutya no iziselo (food and drinks)-. Most syllables end in a vowel, and there are no consonant clusters. AFL1503/101/1/2018 36 Question 32 Which one of the following statements regarding the noun classes of Xhosa is NOT true? It is one of the eleven official languages of the Republic of South Africa. Xhosa has a Roman-based orthography which was developed by missionaries in the 19th century and adapted to represent the sounds of the language. All education at the university level is in English or Afrikaans. After: emva. personal nouns/words borrowed from other languages/some animal names, category – some liquids and abstract nouns. Xhosa (isiXhosa) is the southernmost member of the Bantoid group of the Niger-Congo language family in Africa. More examples homework . The normal word order in Xhosa is Verb-Object (the subject is part of the verb compound). Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. (4) the grammar of wine (5) OK, so the grammar 's awful, but the storyline hinted at in those few words could be fascinating. Only nouns referring to human beings belong to classes 9 and 10. All Xhosa nouns are classified into various classes according to their prefixes. The use of Swahili spread with the growth of commerce during the coloni… Note: According to oral tradition the word is derived from the name of uXhosa, an early (but possibly mythical) leader; or from an unrecorded Nguni-language word related to Xhosa xoza, Zulu xhoza chip off, pare, and Zulu ilixhoza, ixhoza resister, deserter (also the term for a member of the Xhosa people). Clicks are stops produced with two points of contact in the mouth: one forward and one in the back. Xhosa has 15 noun classes, shown in the table category – anatomical terms (especially those in pairs)/individuals of an ethnic group/misc. Found 100 sentences matching phrase "grammar".Found in 5 ms. Written by a life-long language practioner who has spoken isiXhosa since childhood, this grammar represents a significant advance in understanding the structure of isiXhosa, the language of more than 8 million South Africans. Dental clicks are represented by the letter c, alveolar clicks are indicated by q, and lateral clicks are written with the letter x. Vowel length is not always represented in writing. The structure of the Xhosa language. Under: ngaphantsi. There are different groups of nouns in Xhosa. Xhosa nouns belong to 17 different classes, roughly based on semantic categories, e.g., there are classes for human beings, animals, plants, objects of various shapes, etc. 2. The Xhosa quiz below would be a great way for you to test what you have practiced earlier with our Vocabulary Trainer.Below we picked 25 of the questions used on our pages of the most commonly used vocabulary. ( Log Out /  The Swahili-speaking populations on the East African coast served as intermediaries between the Bantu-speaking peoples in the interior of Africa and the traders on the coast who came from South Asia and Arabia. The argument proposes an H tone-motivated domain structure for every noun type, referred to as How difficult is it to learn Xhosa? It is possible that the name has its origins in a split in the Nguni group, the … Xhosa has several dialects, including Mpondo (Pondo), Xesibe, Bomwana, Gaika, Gcaleka, Thembu, Mpondomise, Ndlambe (Ethnologue). 1. ( Log Out /  These prefixes are drawn from a limited set of morphemes, which serve as overt markers of a noun’ s class. Nouns are grouped into noun classes based on the prefix they have, with each class having a number. Xhosa is spoken as a first language by approximately 8.2 million people and by another 11 million as a second language in South Africa, mostly in Eastern Cape, Western Cape, Gauteng and Northern Cape. They are marked with a raised /ʱ/. Adjectives, possessive pronouns and demonstratives agree with the noun they modify in class and number. (umfazi mhle) The woman is pretty. Privacy Policy Thus, the word for ‘people’ is abantu in all these languages. Terms of Use grammar translation in English-Xhosa dictionary. (6) There is little in terms of correct grammar and pronunciation that listeners can learn from them. With: kunye. The red letters are orthographic representations of the sounds. Although mutually intelligible, they are considered to be separate languages for political and cultural reasons. Personal nouns/certain nouns derived from verbs/misc referring to human beings belong to classes 9 and 10 sees the analysis... Xhosa, or in Xhosa is complex Khoisan-speaking people are invoked in the. A category II language in the table grammar translation in English-Xhosa dictionary the tongue noun! 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