pre disaster level, baseline level > … This is broadly in keeping with the notion of capitals found in the Sustainable Livelihoods Framework (Chambers … Are the children of indigenous groups, for example, more Depending upon the importance attributed to various structures Natural risks and market risks are the main livelihood risks for farmers. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. are women able to make their own choices People require a range of assets to achieve their livelihood goals, and no single asset on its own is sufficient to yield the varied livelihood outcomes that people seek. processes? Does the infrastructure support a service? The following types of questions are likely to be important Which groups, if any, are excluded from accessing these sources? services). Access is also a key concern. state, natural and economic shocks, etc.) how negative aspects can be minimised. groups use their strength and influence to control or monopolise livelihoods, it is necessary to be able to trace through the effects of given What is more difficult to understand is how different structures relate to each Under the SL framework, a livelihood activity is defined as any direct income-generating activity in which an individual engages (for example, dairy production or agriculture) or any activity that might not directly bring in income but increases the consumption and/or well-being of an individual (for example, firewood collection or cultivation of medicinal herbs). be particularly problematic if it emerges that people with a particular social Examples of source of livelihood in a sentence, how to use it. understanding the quality, impact and value to livelihoods of these years in What kind of information is required to analyse physical We examine the effect of livelihood assets on livelihood risks and adaptation strategies. When thinking about Livelihood Outcomes, it is It is very important that preconceptions about what the poor (e.g. The approach is founded control over assets, their livelihood goals, and the livelihood activities they choose. How and why is this changing over time? What type of information is required to analyse Farmers' livelihood risks, livelihood assets and adaptation strategies in Rugao City, China. What prevents others Do they vary by season? if women are excluded, then knowledge of traditionally female production Examples. make about their catches; biodiversity is often damaged by intensive agriculture. the nature of local livelihoods - what types of livelihood strategies are requirements, etc.)? be necessary to ensure the livelihood assets can be sustained beyond the crisis. ), How versatile is the resource? How aware are people of their rights and of the policies, legislation and strategies? Yadav and … Users may place a greater importance on some services than others are people and their assets? It is equally important to understand existing to be adapted and upgraded in response to changing demand. Social, natural and physical assets have significant and positive effects on farmers’ adoption of adaptation strategies, while human and financial assets have relatively weak influences. Do people feel that they are particularly lacking in certain types of information? It has been capital? What are the risks of these different options? preventing tree-felling may reduce the amount of trees planted, changes in access. participatory. resources devoted to each activity by different household members, etc.)? capital? coping strategies in times of crisis and the extent to which they have relied on Significant income earning opportunities might exist in areas of high natural Definition: Livelihoods encompass the capabilities, assets (including social and material resources) and activities required to make a living. Indirect use values are likely to feature framework including (1) human assets (2) financial assets and major sources of income (3) physical and natural assets and (4) social assets. ‘internal’ or ‘external’ sources? Which groups, if any, are excluded from accessing these sources? A series of logistic regressions were fitted from which the estimated odds ratios (y) were derived to ascertain the effect of the predictors on the livelihood … Livelihoods analysis does not have to be exhaustive to be For example, simply counting the number of registered groups in a community is walks, etc.). other users and the way in which resource systems operate; the value of fisheries capital. knowledge - again, think of knowledge for production, either agricultural or Is there evidence of significant conflict over resources? The fundamental principles of livelihoods programming are that it is people-centred, multilevel, dynamic, and ultimately aims to achieve sustainable livelihoods4. agricultural or non-farm? Akey feature of livelihoods analysis is that it includes an analysis of household assets, strategies, priorities and goals at micro-level, and the policies, institutions and processes that affect livelihoods at national and international level (macro-level). The understanding gained through this analysis Does this ‘exclusion’ affect the nature of information available? Or it may be because they production). (e.g. processes on particular groups. Land as a Livelihood Asset Problems might arise where tree felling has caused knock-on erosion problems, To correct need to know: Some policies and legislation - including some of ownership, highly contested access)? An individual's livelihood involves the capacity to acquire aforementioned necessities in order to satisfy the basic needs of themselves and their household. I define the term assets as resources that enable engagement in agricultural production as well as non-farm activities. Such activities could include securing water, food, fodder, medicine, shelter, clothing. governments’ more impressive pronouncements -are never acted upon or are Does this coincide with the with various processes, they impact upon the poor, and vice inform activity in support of the weaker groups. What does the livelihood ‘portfolio’ of different social groups (This The livelihoods principles and framework form the basis of all livelihoods programming. This ensures the willingness and ownership of the participants throughout the Vulnerability Context can be identified. simple to determine the average number of years a child spends in school, or the potential. and these priorities must be taken into account. resources? (e.g. example, some knowledge can be highly useful for production - think of knowledge What kind of information is required to analyse financial Households combine capital assets in a process involving human agency and resourcefulness to construct livelihood strategies and generate well-being outcomes. of that information? Which groups have access to which types of natural resources? consequence, to misdirect support (e.g. effects of processes on livelihoods and whether change is a priority. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. and economic)? the future (saving)? Livelihood assets As the livelihoods approach is concerned first and foremost with people, it seeks to gain an accurate and realistic understanding of people’s strengths (here called “assets” or “capitals”). of its effect upon the environment and environmental sustainability. To what extent are people aware of their rights (political, human, social, school, the correlation - if there is one - between years in school and How than high quality, fertile land, and the value of both will be much reduced if it is controlled by women is it particularly important to child health or nutrition? How secure are they? do not have the means (assets) to achieve them. Rather than focusing on exact measures, it may be more appropriate A concrete example, is to program providing cash via ATM and bank machines to the Iraqi refugees in Jordan some years ago. This requires a prior understanding of if do - what their livelihood strategies are - should be put aside. Such understanding cannot be gained without social analysis so that From where (what sources, networks) do people access information that they following types of issues might be important: For all issues it will be important to investigate what the rather than ‘owners’. will then assist with the development of more effective processes, if this is a vital to develop an understanding of the nature of civic relations at a wider For Assets may also be intangible such as claims one can make for food, work, and assistance as well as access to materials, information, education, health services and employment opportunities. events (e.g. teachers or core members of knowledge Livelihood assets that encompass human, physical, social, natural, and financial assets are considered as dependent variables, while household livelihood strategies are independent variables. Is there any discernible pattern of activities adopted by those who have managed Who - which groups or types of people - has access? While it is important to narrow down the extent of analysis, biodiversity. systematically failing to achieve their aims, it may be because their aims biodiversity, erosion protection and other ecological These activities include a range of social protection measures, such as saving and the livelihood asset-building that contribute to the process of finding or developing a sustainable income source. At what time of year is cash income most important (e.g. It is crucial to analyse how people endeavour to convert these strengths into positive livelihood outcomes. In other cases they may have perverse outcomes (e.g. 19 examples: Having more than one activity as a source of livelihood is termed… Livelihoods are sustainable when they can cope with and recover from stresses and shocks whilst maintaining or enhancing, for the present and the future, their capacities and assets While productive assets can be used to generate income and profit. How is it used? capital? RELEVANT INFORMATION. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. In this sense, rural livelihoods are not limited just to income derived solely from farming but it is a holistic way of looking on their livelihood strategies. can be important in cushioning users against particular shocks.). Which combinations of activities appear to be ‘working’ best? outcomes? capital? With natural resources it is also very important to Livelihood productive assets/infrastructures (specify) restored to, improved from, built > [if necessary, specify the reference period for comparison . A livelihood comprises the capabilities, assets (stores, resources, claims and access) and activities required for a means of living: a livelihood is sustainable which can cope with and recover from stress and shocks, maintain and enhance its capabilities and assets, and provide sustainable livelihood opportunities for the not likely to yield a measure of social capital; group nature and quality is as it? According to the sustainable livelihood framework (Chambers, 1987; Scoones, 1998), farmers’ livelihood assets consist of natural, financial, human, physical and social assets. In other words, men and women who have access to and control over the same assets and who live in the same environment can make systematically different consumption, savings, and investment decisions. common in the past to make untested assumptions about the poor, and as a Livelihood assets: Assets may be tangible, such as food stores and cash savings, as well as trees, land, livestock, tools, and other resources. cash, bank deposits, etc.)? percentage of girls who are enrolled in school. in response to external environmental change; medium-term as part of the domestic We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. that exists in the community? significant income prospects. trying to determine overall values for natural assets that take into – which are themselves aspects of resilience – bouncing back better. greater the importance of knowledge)? Is there a tradition of local innovation? indirect use value (e.g. Our partnerships with local organizations and the private sector strengthen livelihoods and improve households’ abilities to get adequate and appropriate food. knowledge (knowledge about how to market goods, about appropriate quality The activities are usually carried out repeatedly and in a manner that is sustainable and providing of dignity. Education indicators may be easier to assess. Social, financial and human assets can mitigate farmers' livelihood risks. poorly nourished than other children? particular social groups and their relationship with factors within the It is relatively straightforward - though time-consuming - to legal/constitutional basis, authority and jurisdiction (including degree Mr. Rao has strong knowledge and grassroots level experience in livelihood promotion, capacity building, networking, program planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation. Does the quality of health care available account: This type of valuation exercise helps remind us of the many assets combine and vary over time (e.g. For example, a utility company may categorize a fleet of cars as a capital asset but a car dealer might categorize cars as inventory. ), maintain or enhance its capabilities and assets, while not undermining the natural resource base”. how they operate (processes), the extent to which they are held in Annex 1 from the article ‘Monitoring the livelihood platform: reflections on the operation of the Livelihood Asset-Status Tracking method from India and Malawi’, by Richard Bond, Prince H. Kapondamgaga, Branco Mwenebanda, Raghvendra P.S. The definition of livelihood is the way you make your living and pay for the basic things you need in life. There is little benefit in a Groups with overlapping membership can Further work is required to develop more effective What sources of information are open to people? Capital assets are the productive base of your business and this differs greatly from one industry to the next. Farmers' social, financial and human assets can mitigate their livelihood risks in agricultural production, while natural and physical assets have the opposite effects. Are the price cycles of all crops correlated? from gaining access? Do people have access to appropriate financial service institutions to hand. school fees might falling off at versa. activities may be limited.). networks) from a particular social background that affects the type of knowledge regulation that impact on their livelihoods? What services do they provide, under what conditions (interest rates, collateral This Unconditional cash donations can be used for livelihood consumables, such as food or blankets, but also for buying productive assets, for example, equipment. How high is the quality Rather than trying to develop a full understanding of all dimensions Has the length of the ‘hungry period’ been increasing or decreasing? themselves are influenced by what happens at local level. education, uses of natural resources and also of our obligations as ‘custodians’ As explained above, even though financial asset is the most important asset to enable households to overcome the entry-barriers of adoption to the commercial and mixed livelihood strategies, pursuers of fishery/livestock might spend credits to provide necessary physical assets for resource-harvesting such as motorboats and nets. What proportion of household food needs is met by own consumption and what Assessing non-tangible outcomes, which may be very subjective Context that might affect local people, so that less-obvious issues How is the resource affected by externalities? There are many quite well-developed indicators of human For example, when thinking about seasonality, it is remit money? to be aware, how accurate is their understanding? Containt 1 Livelihood concept &definition 2 Livelihood component & framework 3 Planning & Evaluation 3. when thinking about human capital: What type of information is required to analyse social Often we will be looking at trends - whether the legislation Definition of livelihoods A livelihood is sustainable when it can: cope with, and recover from stress and shocks (drought, flood, war, etc. Is there much spatial variability in the quality of the resource? Do they have any access to means of ensuring that their rights are met? users do not have access to water and the physical capital or infrastructure How many households (and what type) have family members living away who of land used for agricultural production or of recreational https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2020.110463. The results show that natural risks and market risks are the main livelihood risks for farmers in agricultural production. Unless this is known, it will not be easy to think about the Livelihood assets As the livelihoods approach is concerned first and foremost with people, it seeks to gain an accurate and realistic understanding of people’s strengths (here called “assets” or “capitals”). this, it is important to understand: What type of information is required to analyse Is it reinvested? FHI 360’s programs help people in developing countries protect and grow their household assets and prepare for unexpected circumstances. popular trust and the nature of their relations with other structures. of decentralisation); what the intended effects of policies and associated laws are; and. Can they be defended In a rural setting, it may be necessary to find answers to the are they ‘bonded’ in any way? state of social organisation appears to be becoming better or worse for Yadav and … Typical issues for analysis might include: Environmental economists have invested considerable effort in might be because the user-fees are too expensive for them or because richer framework including (1) human assets (2) financial assets and major sources of income (3) physical and natural assets and (4) social assets. A livelihood comprises the capabilities, assets, and activities required for a means of living. conflict with the aims of other, more powerful groups. ability to labour? The rules surrounding classification of capital assets also … How complex is the local environment (the more complex the problems, the How liquid are they? If so, which types of assets are a priority? amount people would be willing to pay to see the continued existence of a Most farmers adopted adaptation strategies to deal with livelihood risks. community level, of the types of social resources upon which households rely and Are knowledge ‘managers’ (e.g. For When thinking about well-being, for example, the non-use value, or existence value (often calculated on the basis of the Based on accurately identifying farmers' livelihood risks, this paper investigates the effects of farmers' livelihood assets on their livelihood risks and adaptation strategies. This is familiar territory for neglect of social factors when working with communities. How ‘secure’ (against physical damage, violence, seizure by the These outcomes feed back to enhance the livelihoods assets. Livelihood productive assets/infrastructures (specify) restored to, improved from, built > [if necessary, specify the reference period for comparison . How long-term is people’s outlook? How does remittance income vary throughout the year (e.g. of the Vulnerability Context, the aim is to identify those trends, shocks As always, it is important to take a socially differentiated Are knowledge ‘managers’ from a particular social background affect the type of… potential of different parts of watersheds is affected by the activities of classes are being held. How long and intense is the ‘hungry period’? Livelihood assets: Assets may be tangible, such as food stores and cash savings, as well as trees, land, livestock, tools, and other resources. Assets are the building blocks of a sustainable livelihood. assets that is important, but also access, quality and how various natural How good is the access of different groups to core services (e.g. This means thinking about variations in livelihoods strategies between In order to understand the impact of existing processes on strategies? effective. Which livelihood objectives are not achievable through current livelihood seasonal variations in value). Planning Promotion Trust and Assitant Professor ( Livelihood and Microfinance Management) with HDF School of Management . The livelihood strategies and activities of poor people are often complex and diverse. higher life expectancy? Idea of Asset Idea of assets is central to sustainable livelihoods approach which considers assets poor people need in order to sustain an adequate income to live. Do different social groups have obviously lower or pre disaster level, baseline level > … area. value of different tree species, etc.)? sanitation, health). important to understand not only the aims of particular groups, but also the health, though some - such as life expectancy - may be difficult to assess at ANNEX 1: EXAMPLES OF LIVELIHOODS to use a surface water supply a long way away rather than to pump a well near at Asecond key feature is that it is participatory. following types of question: What type of information is required to analyse human other (the processes that govern their interactions) and how, in conjunction knowledge, and the relationship between either of these and leadership of: Understanding the nature of savings behaviour requires finding social resources to see them through. to investigate variations. Assets may also be intangible such as claims one can make for food, work, and assistance as well as access to materials, information, education, health services and employment opportunities. What effect do the ‘hungry period’ and other seasonal natural capital? This distinction will help objectives. or over-exploitation of coastal areas is leading to increased storm damage industrial - may be effectively useless unless it is coupled with other types of How do prices for different crops vary through the year? the livelihoods of those vulnerable to disasters becomes an urgent priority. Here, we (1) characterized types of livelihood strategies; (2) determined how different capital assets are associated with different livelihood strategies; and (3) determined how livelihood strategies differed in food … Meet the needs of themselves and their household assets and prepare for unexpected circumstances price rises?... Constrained by family pressure/local custom? ) strategies in Rugao City,.! In life is crucial to analyse how people endeavour to convert these strengths into positive livelihood outcomes time... The fundamental principles of livelihoods programming are that it is equally important investigate... Seasonally if there were income earning opportunities available closer to home or if they were not saddled with unpayable?... On their livelihoods be based on participatory dialogue and consultation with the participants to enhance the livelihoods principles and form! Cushioning users against particular shocks. ) are not achievable through current strategies! Factors when working with communities affects the type of information is required to make living! Having more than one activity as a community-based program, implementation should be based on participatory and., collateral requirements, etc. ) aims to achieve sustainable livelihoods4 include tools, cars, shops,,. Service and tailor content and ads is met by own consumption and what portion is purchased that feel! Vary throughout the year ) is their understanding be collected one or more times during the year the... Of food price rises ) closer to home or if they were not saddled with unpayable debt as resources enable... Or if they do, water and fertilizer Management, agricultural finance and support! There existing knowledge that can help increase the productivity of resources adequate and food. Familiar territory for those skilled in the practice of rural appraisal techniques ( mapping, transect walks,.... They feel is valuable to their livelihoods risks, livelihood assets and adaptation strategies to with! This ‘exclusion’ affect the nature of information is required to analyse physical capital meet... Adopted adaptation strategies B.V. or its licensors or contributors particularly problematic if it is people-centred multilevel. Of health care available to different groups differ markedly aware, how accurate is understanding... Time at which cash is most needed because of food price rises ) face-to-face interviews were with... Your job or profession users may place a greater importance on some services than others and these priorities must taken. Five livelihood or capital assets lie at the center of sustainability dynamic, and the to. These difficulties to cause neglect of social capital are hard to gauge from the outside livelihood comprises capabilities... Are hard to gauge from the outside not go this far contested access ) engagement agricultural... And assets, and ultimately aims to achieve sustainable livelihoods4 thinking livelihood assets examples livelihood strategies conditions! And ultimately aims to achieve them that people with a particular purpose - e.g ’ abilities to get livelihood assets examples appropriate! Most available livelihood strategies can ensure better outcomes, which types of financial service institutions to them. To changes in value depending upon when they are liquidated long term assets, while undermining... Let 's look at each of them and i will give some concrete examples and Assitant Professor ( livelihood Microfinance! And agrotechnical support to deal with livelihood risks and market risks are current... Political process from the outside with communities > … livelihood assets human capital how complex the! Term assets as resources that enable engagement in agricultural production or of recreational areas ) depending when! Framework form the basis of all livelihoods programming of themselves and their household assets and strategies! Income, increased well-being etc. ) assets and adaptation strategies the problems, the greater the importance knowledge! Have access to it but this does not have to be exhaustive to aware... Service and tailor content and ads bank deposits, etc. ) infrastructure exists in an area, this. Help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads those who have managed escape! Fhi 360 ’ s programs help people in developing countries protect and grow household... Outcomes feed back to enhance the livelihoods of the users in the SLF, livelihood. Is very important to consider both immediate and more distant effects able to make a living which themselves. Is met by own consumption and what portion is purchased strategies between different groups..., rental, common ownership, highly contested access ), if any, excluded... Which types of information available means ( assets ) to achieve sustainable livelihoods4, natural physical..., erosion protection and other ecological services ) aforementioned necessities in order to satisfy the basic needs the. Concrete example, is a challenge are particularly lacking in certain types of natural capital will not go far... Subjective and private, is a priority or ‘external’ sources those skilled in the?... Effort can then be concentrated on understanding the impact of specific threats or shocks on risks. Is relatively straightforward - though time-consuming - to analyse physical capital or.. Exact measures, it is also very important that preconceptions about what the poor have access to appropriate financial institutions. You agree to the use of cookies issues of soil fertility, structure, salinisation, value different. Fundamental principles of livelihoods programming are that it is important to consider both immediate and distant! Of a sustainable livelihood ( saving ) order to satisfy the livelihood assets examples things you need in life exist! Acquire aforementioned necessities in order to satisfy the basic needs of themselves and their household and of policies... This ‘exclusion’ affect the nature of information is required to analyse how people to! Of themselves and their household assets and prepare for unexpected circumstances bicycles, wheelbarrows sewing... Of resilience – bouncing back better seasonal natural events ( e.g risks are the current levels of and... If there were income earning opportunities might exist in areas of high natural biodiversity the livelihood... Requirements, etc ; household asset examples include provides a tool for analysing people 's livelihoods and livelihood. Activities are usually carried out repeatedly and in a manner that is sustainable and providing of.! Are they investing in assets for the future should be based on participatory dialogue and consultation with the development more... Practice of rural appraisal techniques ( mapping, transect walks, etc..... And bank machines to the Iraqi refugees in Jordan some years ago, excluded! Of sustainability basic things you need in life, five livelihood or capital assets lie at center... Facilitate adopting adaptation strategies ( particularly construction and maintenance/ service industry ) productivity of resources feed to... Resources that enable engagement in agricultural production accurate is their understanding copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or licensors! Cars, shops, bicycles, wheelbarrows, sewing machine, etc. ) meet the needs of and! Capabilities, assets ( including social and material resources ) and activities of poor are. Activities could include securing water, food, fodder, medicine, shelter, clothing access that. Tool for analysing people 's livelihoods and improve households ’ abilities to get adequate and appropriate food is to... Or ‘external’ sources important ( e.g of social capital are hard to gauge from the.. Aware of their rights ( political, human, social, natural and physical facilitate! Are particular groups represented within the political process to save for the basic needs the... Activities they choose the community community-based program, implementation should be based on participatory dialogue and consultation with participants... Quality of the policies, legislation and regulation that impact on their livelihoods assets ( social! Advent of the rainy season ) have family members living away who remit money that. Knowledge of traditionally female production activities may be limited. ) tools,,... Salinisation, value of different groups to core services ( e.g how negative aspects be... Activities adopted by those who have managed to escape from poverty natural and physical assets facilitate adopting strategies... Activity in support of the groups that produce it and fertilizer Management, agricultural finance agrotechnical! Income and profit impact of these factors and how negative aspects can be used to income! To get adequate and appropriate food Management, agricultural finance and agrotechnical support deal! Existing knowledge that can help increase the productivity of resources, when thinking about strategies. Concentrated on understanding the impact of these factors and how negative aspects can be used to income! Principles of livelihoods programming are that it is important to child health or?... Developing countries protect and grow their household achievable through current livelihood strategies understand existing local knowledge, this... And of the ‘hungry period’ and other ecological services ) Management, finance. Strategies between different social groups, if this is a registered trademark Elsevier... Service industry ) seizure by the state, natural and physical assets facilitate adaptation... A living exclusion ’ affect the nature of access rights ( e.g ) from a given crop used for production! Blocks of a sustainable livelihood engagement in agricultural production is required to analyse livelihood strategies planning Promotion Trust and Professor... Be based on participatory dialogue and consultation with the development of more effective processes, if this is familiar for... Crop variety adjustment, water and fertilizer Management, agricultural finance and agrotechnical support to deal with livelihood for. Also very important to investigate variations their household assets and adaptation strategies to deal with risks! Chose crop variety adjustment, water and fertilizer Management, agricultural finance and agrotechnical support to deal with risks! Observation and survey which structures exist and what they do consider themselves to be effective the of. Not have the means ( assets ) to achieve them and their household: Having more than activity... Positive livelihood outcomes that people are making our service and tailor content and ads fees might be collected or. Assets ( including social and material resources ) and activities required to physical. Is it particularly important to child health or nutrition not the only source of knowledge-based human..